A resort is protected zone, rich for natural resources, explored and used for illness prevention and treatment.
Natural remedial resources are mineral springs, muds, landscape and climate conditions used for treatment and prevention of diseases and recreation.
The resorts around the world, taking into consideration their remedial factors, can subdivided into climate resorts, balneotherapeutic resorts and sulphuric mud resorts. The resorts combining all the factors mentioned above or almost all known and used nowadays natural recreational resources are considered unique.
Sochi is the one - leading resort city on the territory of the Black Sea coast of Krasnodar Region, the largest resort in Russia. Wild subtropical climate, warm unfreezing Sea, lush vegetation, beautiful landscapes, the richest hydrothermal springs base* provide ideal conditions to build multi profile and multi purpose resort: seaside climatic, spa and mud resort, mineral water, mountain climatic resort.
Sochi is rich for diverse landscapes and exotic natural objects: hilly foothills, coastal lowlands, snowy mountain peaks, valleys among the rocks, waterfalls and canyons with mountain rivers, caves, lakes, parks and forest parks create a picturesque view and produce positive emotional impact. Such diverse terrain of the territory makes it highly attractive for tourists and determines remedial factors of the climate.
Sochi climate was formed under the influence of warm Black Sea basin and the Caucasian mountains preventing cold northern winds from blowing into the city. That is why the Black Sea coast stretching from Adler to Tuapse is a unique territory in Russia with mild subtropical climate. And this is the northernmost district in the climatic zone.
There are two climatic periods in Sochi: warm period - from May to October and cold period - from November to April. The calendar winter is mild and lacks frosts. Average temperature in January is about +5C +6C. In March the sun is already rich for erithermal rays which makes it possible to not only sunbathe but also to get a stable southern suntan. Summer heat is softened by cool breezes from the sea and by fens - warm winds from the mountains.
Clear cloudless weather predominates. Average temperatures in July are +23C +23C. Autumn is dry and warm, lasts long and is called “Velvet Season”.
Average temperatures and air humidity greatly affect people’s health, especially patients with cardiovascular diseases. Total precipitation a year, 1500-2000 inches. Sunshine amounts for 2250 hours a year. Annual sun radiance is 117ccal/square sm. Average air humidity is about 75%-80%.
Climate of Sochi Resort is characterized by the combination of average long term factors, which, being comfortable for people, create the most beneficial conditions for the recovery and sufficiently increase the specific treatment effectiveness. At the same time the effect of the combination of all the remedial factors taken together greatly increases the effectiveness of each of them. The most important role in the recovery process plays the switch from patient’s usual environment with its common stresses to more comfortable conditions of the resort. Pure and fresh air of the coastal climate of Sochi, rich for ozon and sea salts, intense sunshine, lack of abrupt temperature changes improve muscle body tone, strengthen mind and body.
Sun therapy (heliotherapy) and air therapy play the most important role in climate environmental therapy.
Due to the geographical location of Sochi resort the sun reaches its highest position in the sky over the horizon from 23 grades in December to 70 grades in June, which determines high level of sun radiation. That is the optimal level of ultra- violet rays for people.
UV radiation causes diverse physical reaction of all human organs and systems. Under the influence of sun rays human body elaborates active biological substances; oxygen restoration processes and metabolism increase, body gas exchange improves.
Long wave rays (infrared and warm) that amount for about 70% of sun radiation mostly have heating effect on human body. They penetrate up to 4 centimeters into the skin and the underlying tissues, dilate blood vessels thus resolving the seats of chronic inflammatory processes.
Short wave UV rays penetrate 0,6-1 millimeters into the skin but their biological activity is much higher than that of the long wave UV rays: they have a preventive, germicide and pigmentary effect; stimulate vitamins synthesis, improve skin, activate and anticipate enzymes and immune system.
However long exposure to direct sun rays, especially in summer months, can cause sun overdose which threatens not only sunburns but even worse consequences.
Therapeutic effects of Sochi air is determined by its purity (almost complete absence of dust and microbes), high levels of iodine, nitrogen and oxygen, phytoncides and ions. Fresh air cures oxygen deficiency. Sea breeze increases functionals of breathing and cardiovascular systems, deepens breath, improves gas exchange and stimulates dermal and vascular reflexes.
Air ions, active biological substances, improve lungs ventilation; stimulate oxygen extraction and carbon dioxide excretion, metabolism and vitamin synthesis, immune system; increase the number of red cells and the level of hemoglobin in blood, mental and physical skills. Air ions are held in the air at a distance of 200 meters from the sea brink. In spring and in summer, strong winds and big waves increase their content in the air. Air therapy can be taken all year round, it includes staying dressed in the open air, sleeping outside, taking air baths.
Vegetation characteristic to mild subtropical climate has a vast diversity of growing species. Forests and forest parks take up to 80% of the resort territory. The green zone if the resort plays an important part in the process of treatment. Produced by plants, Phytonicides - essential oils in the air - prevent microbes and viruses, improve breathing, normalize heart rate and blood pressure, trigger oxidation process and metabolism, reduce inflammatory process in the broncho pulmonary system. Thus the sea side park zone proves to be a natural inhalation.
The term “ tallasic therapy “ is widely spread nowadays. The term stands for complex influence of sea air, sun radiation and swimming in the sea, ie - it is sea coast climate therapy. It is the basic method of treatment and illness prevention in most seaside towns. Black Sea is the warmest sea in Russia. An average temperature of water in Sochi District in August reaches +27C +28C. The beach season lasts 6-7 months a year.
Black Sea water represents a complex set of physical, chemical and biological features. The mineralized surface layers of Black Sea water comprises 18,5 grams/ liter. The concentration of bromine in the Black Sea waters is similar to middle bromide-iodine concentration of Ust-Kachka resort water or iodine-bromide water of Khadyzhensky spring.
The application of sea waters for treatment has been widely spread since the ancient times. Doctors in ancient Egypt prescribed their patients sea baths. Antique doctors prescribed to take Sea water to cure stomach, bladder diseases and anaemia.
Nowadays sea baths take the leading role in world resorts therapy.
A number of factors influence human body while bathing. Cold effect of sea water due to the difference in the air and sea thermal conductivity, hydrostatic pressure, physical activity and the emotions to the bathing greatly influence hemodynamics (blood circulation), change blood supply in organs and tissues, have frank hypotensive effect, decrease heart palpitations, stimulate metabolism.
While bathing, electrolytes may penetrate in the skin, thus stimulating metabolism and cells functions, normalizing the nerves, the sea rate, the blood morphology; stimulating adrenal cortical synthesis; increasing the skin sensitivity to UV rays (be careful while sunbathing!).
The city health resorts mostly use: swimming and bathing in the sea or in the swimming pools with sea water, sea baths. Sea water is used for inhalation, gargling, all sorts of spraying and washing, showers and for pine, herbal and different mud baths.
Hydro thermal springs base of the Resort*
Mineral Springs - underground (less likely surface) springs that produce water containing high level of minerals or other dissolved substances, salts, sulfur compounds and the gases that alter its taste or give it a purported therapeutic value.